Please find below the solutions for the first 5 exercises of our set Creating vectors. The solutions for exercise 6, 7 and 8 are available in our eBook Start Here To Learn R – vol. 1: Vectors, arithmetic, and regular sequences.

### Solution 3

```
c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10)
```

```
## [1] 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3
## [24] 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6
## [47] 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
## [70] 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2
## [93] 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
```

The number in square brackets is a convenience counter that R adds to its output, which helps to locate the position in the vector of each element shown.

### Solution 4

#### Part a

This works, but is not preferred for stylistic reasons:

```
a<-c(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
a
```

`## [1] 1 2 3 4 5`

#### Part b

Adding a space before and after the `<-`

operator, as in (b), leads to cleaner code that is easier to read.

```
a <- c(50, 60, 70, 80, 90)
a
```

`## [1] 50 60 70 80 90`

#### Part c

Although it is possible to reverse the `<-`

operator, it should always point from the vector to its name, not from the name to the vector. So this gives an error:

`a -> c(20, 31, 42, 53, 64)`

`## Error in c(20, 31, 42, 53, 64) <- a : target of assignment`

`## expands to non-language object`

Because the previous statement led to an error, `a`

didn’t change. So, if we look up the contents of `a`

, we will see the same output as for part (b).

`a`

`## [1] 50 60 70 80 90`

#### Part d

R throws an error again, because the `<-`

operator points from the name to the vector, instead of from the name to the vector:

`c(5, 6, 7, 9, 10) <- a`

`## Error in c(5, 6, 7, 9, 10) <- a : target of assignment`

`## expands to non-language object`

And, like before in part (c), `a`

didn’t change. So, if we look up the contents of `a`

, we will still see the same output as for part (b).

`a`

`## [1] 50 60 70 80 90`

#### Part e

The following statement works, because the `<-`

operator points from the vector to the name.

```
c(101, 102, 103, 104, 105) -> a
a
```

`## [1] 101 102 103 104 105`

#### Part f

The `<`

and `-`

part of the `<-`

operator always have to be adjacent. So in the following statement, R reads the `<`

operator, and then a `-`

sign, instead of the `<-`

operator. It executes the statement as a comparison (a topic we’ll come to later), and doesn’t throw an error. Note that `a`

didn’t change.

`a < - c(11, 12, 13, 14, 15)`

`## [1] FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE`

`a`

`## [1] 101 102 103 104 105`

#### Part g

Again, the `<`

and `-`

part of the `<-`

operator always have to be adjacent, so the following is identical to part (f).

`a < -c(100, 99, 88, 77, 66)`

`## [1] FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE`

`a`

`## [1] 101 102 103 104 105`

#### Part h

Finally, instead of `<-`

, we can also use the `assign()`

function. But beware that the name of the vector has to appear between quotes. So, the following gives an error:

`assign(a, c(1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000))`

`## Error in assign(a, c(1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000)) :`

`## invalid first argument`

`a`

`## [1] 101 102 103 104 105`

#### Part i

Below we use the `assign`

function correctly.

```
assign('a', c(83, 16, 35, 58, 3))
a
```

`## [1] 83 16 35 58 3`

### Solution 5

```
evenNumbers <- c(2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20)
zero <- 0
pi <- 3.141593
powersOfTen <- c(1, 10, 100, 1000, 10000, 100000)
```

### Solution 6

The solution for this exercise is available in our eBook Start Here To Learn R – vol. 1: Vectors, arithmetic, and regular sequences.

### Solution 7

The solution for this exercise is available in our eBook Start Here To Learn R – vol. 1: Vectors, arithmetic, and regular sequences.

### Solution 8

The solution for this exercise is available in our eBook Start Here To Learn R – vol. 1: Vectors, arithmetic, and regular sequences.

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